Spheroidal protoplasts (SPH) are spherical structures composed of a thin layer of microtubules. They have been found in many different species of plants, including some cultivated for food. Some scientists believe that SPH may play a role in photosynthesis.
The term “spheroid” refers to a sphere with rounded or flattened sides. A spheroid is usually round, but it can be flat or oblong. A typical example of a spheroid is a planet. The Earth, for instance, is approximately spherical, but it is flattened at the poles.
Spheroids have the same basic properties as other geometric shapes. For example, the surface area of a spheroid is proportional to the square of its diameter.
The word “protoplast” comes from the Greek words meaning “first” and “molded clay.” It is potentially defined as “the first cell of an organism.” A protoplast is not a living cell. Rather, it is the first cell in a multicellular organism that grows from a zygote.
Most multicellular organisms that exist today have three distinct cells: the zygote, the protoplast (or germ cell), and an intermediate cell type called a totipotent cell.
The term “protoplasm” comes from the Greek words meaning “first” and “molded clay.” In modern biology, the word “protoplasm” is often used to refer to the contents of a cell, excluding its nucleus and organelles. In this usage, protoplasm is not considered to be a cell component. More specifically, it is the jelly-like substance that fills most of a cell.
It contains nutrients and much of the cell’s water, as well as enzymes and ribosomes. The contents of a cell primarily float in protoplasm. In some ways, protoplasm is like a gel, as it has a semi-solid consistency and contains water in large quantities. Some people also use the word “protoplasm” to refer to a cell’s cytoplasm.
The term “mycoplasma” comes from the New Latin word meaning “fungus.” In modern biology, it is a type of bacteria that does not have a cell wall. It is one of the smallest living cells known to exist. Mycoplasmas are so small that they can only be seen with an electron microscope.
They lack a cell wall. They are similar to bacteria in some ways and similar to viruses in other ways. They are similar to bacteria in that they carry out metabolism. They are similar to viruses in that they cannot reproduce on their own. Instead, they have to infect a host cell in order to reproduce.
Spheroplast is another word for spheroid. It is a spherical structure that lacks a cell wall. This word is usually used in reference to a spherical structure that is made up of a thin layer of microtubules. Spheroplasts have been found in some plant cells.
The term “l-form” comes from the New Latin word “forma,” meaning “form.” It is another word for an alternative cellular structure. This term was originally used to refer to the structure of an enzyme.
Most living things are composed of more than one cell. Most multicellular organisms have two types of cells: somatic cells and germ cells. In humans, somatic cells are also called body cells. They make up the organism’s organs, muscles, tissues and other parts.
Germ cells are called germ cells because they give rise to the next generation of cells.
The word “organelle” comes from the New Latin word “organellum,” meaning “little organ.” There are many types of organelles. For example, the nucleus is an organelle found in most cells.
A plasmid is a small ring of DNA or piece of circular DNA found in bacteria. Some plasmids are able to reproduce independently inside the host cell. Most types of plasmids do not hurt the cell. Instead, they may provide benefits for the cell, such as antibiotic resistance.
Sources & references used in this article:
- Transformation of Vinca protoplasts mediated by Agrobacterium spheroplasts (S Hasezawa, T Nagata, K Syono – Molecular and General Genetics MGG, 1981 – Springer)
- Transformation in quasi spheroplasts of Bacillus subtilis (P Tichy, OE Landman – Journal of Bacteriology, 1969 – Am Soc Microbiol)
- Lysis of Mycoplasma, bacterial protoplasts, spheroplasts and L-forms by various agents (S Razin, M Argaman – Microbiology, 1963 – microbiologyresearch.org)
- The reactivity of serum against protoplasts and spheroplasts (LH Muschel, JE Jackson – The Journal of Immunology, 1966 – Am Assoc Immnol)
- Effects of high electric fields on micro-organisms: III. Lysis of erythrocytes and protoplasts (AJH Sale, WA Hamilton – Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) …, 1968 – Elsevier)