Hepatitis B Virus Structure PDF
The human body contains two types of liver cells. One type produces the normal amount of enzymes needed to break down food into usable energy. These are called “eukaryotic” or “prokaryotic” liver cells. They include most bacteria, viruses, fungi and even some single-celled organisms such as algae.
The other type of liver cell makes chemicals called “archaeal” or “bacterial” liver cells. They include other single-celled organisms such as protozoa. Many of these types can be found in the human body. Most of them live in the human digestive system.
Hepatitis is the disease caused by a virus that causes inflammation of the liver cells. There are several types of viruses that can cause this disease, including coxsackie virus and influenza. In addition to viruses, various bacteria, fungi and other single-celled organisms can cause inflammation of the liver cells.
The liver is an important organ in the human body. It helps remove toxins from the blood, breaks down nutrients from food and allows the human body to properly digest food.
There are several ways to suffer from liver disease, including toxins such as alcohol and acetaminophen (Tylenol), autoimmune disease, certain medication, excessive bleeding in the gut, a rare condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, and liver cancer.
There are many different types of viruses that can cause the disease. They are usually broken into two types: “active” or “inactive”.
There are two main types of diseases that cause liver disease. One is called autoimmune hepatitis and the other is called hepatitis virus.
Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the body attacks its own liver cells by mistake. This disease is also known as type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, which is a subtype of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis.
Autoimmune hepatitis occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks its own liver cells. This disease can result in liver damage or failure over time.
The second major cause of hepatitis is a virus known as the hepatitis virus, which is broken into several types. The most common type in the United States is hepatitis A virus.
Hepatitis A is usually spread through food or water contaminated with feces from a person infected with the virus.
Hepatitis B is usually spread through contact with the blood of an infected person.
Hepatitis C is usually spread through contact with the blood of an infected person.
Hepatitis D is usually spread when a person already has hepatitis B and the virus becomes active, which then attacks the liver.
Hepatitis E is spread through the feces of an infected person. This type of hepatitis is rare in the United States.
Hepatitis can be spread from a mother to her unborn baby.
Hepatitis viruses do not spread through food or water.
The best way to prevent hepatitis is to get vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
The vaccine is effective to prevent hepatitis A and B viruses.
Hepatitis vaccines are usually given in the form of 3 shots over a period of 6 months.
The vaccine should be given to anyone who is at risk of exposure to hepatitis A or B viruses.
The vaccine consists of a series of three shots over a period of six months. The vaccine is usually given to babies once they are one year old.
The vaccine has not been shown to cause any serious side effects. The most common side effects are pain, redness and swelling at the injection site.
This vaccine is not recommended for people who are allergic to baker’s yeast.
The vaccine is not recommended for anyone over the age of 18 or anyone who does not have risk factors for hepatitis A or B.
A common question people ask is “Are there any side effects?”
It is important to remember that the vaccine does not protect against ALL types of hepatitis.
The vaccine is sometimes referred to as “HepB” or “hep b”.
Sources & references used in this article:
- All-atom molecular dynamics of the HBV capsid reveals insights into biological function and cryo-EM resolution limits (…, JR Perilla, CJ Schlicksup, B Venkatakrishnan… – Elife, 2018 – elifesciences.org)
- Global structural changes in hepatitis B virus capsids induced by the assembly effector HAP1 (CR Bourne, MG Finn, A Zlotnick – Journal of virology, 2006 – Am Soc Microbiol)
- A theoretical study of SRPK interaction with the flexible domains of hepatitis B capsids (J Kim, J Wu – Biophysical journal, 2014 – Elsevier)
- The crystal structure of the human hepatitis B virus capsid (SA Wynne, RA Crowther, AGW Leslie – Molecular cell, 1999 – Elsevier)
- Conformational changes in the hepatitis B virus core protein are consistent with a role for allostery in virus assembly (C Packianathan, SP Katen, CE Dann… – Journal of virology, 2010 – Am Soc Microbiol)
- Assessment of differences in the conformational flexibility of hepatitis B virus core‐antigen and e‐antigen by hydrogen deuterium exchange‐mass … (JZ Bereszczak, NR Watts, PT Wingfield… – Protein …, 2014 – Wiley Online Library)