Jaundice Pathophysiology PDF: Causes of Jaundice PDF: Treatment for Jaundice
Causes of Jaundice
The liver is responsible for converting food into energy, which is then used to power your body. If there is not enough energy available, your body will start using up other tissues such as muscles or bones. This leads to fatigue, weakness and even death if left untreated. The liver produces bilirubin, a yellowish fluid that accumulates in the blood.
Bilirubin is toxic to red blood cells (RBC) and causes them to become damaged. The RBC’s that are damaged due to jaundice are pale and haemolysed. This is what leads to the yellowed skin and eyes.
Treatment for Jaundice
The treatment for jaundice depends on the cause. Many cases of jaundice go away on their own within a few weeks. If you have severe jaundice you can develop a condition called hepatic encephalopathy, which is brain malfunction due to liver failure. The main treatment for this is a liver transplant, but there are other treatments such as lactulose and rifaximin.
Other causes of jaundice include:
Hepatitis Viral: This is a disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The most common types of hepatitis are A, B, and C.
Alcoholic Liver Disease: While excessive alcohol use can lead to many medical conditions, one of them is alcoholic liver disease.
Obstructive Jaundice: The common bile duct is blocked and not allowing bile to pass into the intestines.
Cholestasis of Pregnancy: This causes the mother’s liver to stop making bile. It is most commonly caused by a hormonal change during pregnancy.
Biliary Atresia: This is a rare disease that causes the bile ducts to close before birth.
Gallstones: Cholesterol and other substances can form into stones and block the bile ducts.
Tyrosinemia: This is an inherited rare metabolic disorder that prevents the proper breakdown of an amino acid called tyrosine.
Sources & references used in this article:
- Pathophysiology of increased intestinal permeability in obstructive jaundice (SF Assimakopoulos, CD Scopa… – World Journal of …, 2007 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
- Pathophysiology of jaundice in amoebic liver abscess (V Singh, A Bhalla, N Sharma, SK Mahi, A Lal… – The American journal of …, 2008 – ASTMH)
- Jaundice associated pruritis: a review of pathophysiology and treatment (R Bassari, JB Koea – World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG, 2015 – ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
- n UGT 1A1 promoter polymorphism: a crucial factor in the pathophysiology of jaundice in G-6-PD deficient neonates (M Kaplan, P Renbaum, HJ Vreman, RJ Wong… – Pediatric …, 2007 – nature.com)
- Pathophysiology and current concepts in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. (WB Lucas, R Chuttani – The Gastroenterologist, 1995 – europepmc.org)