Neuropathy, Ataxia and Retinitis Pigmentosa (NARP Syndrome)
What Is Neuropathy?
The term “neuropathy” refers to pain caused by nerve damage. Nerve damage occurs when there is an injury or blockage in the nerves leading from your body. There are two types of nerve damage:
1. Peripheral – this type of nerve damage occurs when the damaged part of the nerves is not connected to any other parts of your body.
2. Central – this type of nerve damage affects those nerves connected to other parts of your body.
When nerves are damaged they do not work properly or as well as they used to. This can cause difficulty in carrying out normal everyday activities.
There are many different causes of neuropathy – some include:
Peripheral Nerve Pain
1. Alcoholic Neuropathy – this type of damage can occur if you drink a lot of alcohol over a long period of time.
It can also affect people who do not have a history of drinking a lot.
2. Diabetic Neuropathy – people who have high blood sugar for a long period of time can develop nerve damage.
3. Chemotherapy – some types of cancer treatment cause severe damage to your nerves.
4. Amyloid Neuropathy – sometimes the body produces more protein than it can break down.
This is called “amyloidosis”. If too much amyloid builds up in your body, it can damage your nerves by causing them to swell.
5. Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of conditions that affect your digestive system, particularly your intestines.
These conditions cause a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which can cause a loss of feeling in your legs and feet.
6. Autoimmune Diseases – the body’s immune system, which fights off disease and foreign substances in the body, can sometimes begin to attack the body itself, leading to a loss of feeling in your legs and feet.
You may also experience a loss of feeling in your arms, hands, and chest.
7. Lyme Disease – sometimes called “Lyme Neuropathy”, this disease is spread by ticks.
It can cause damage to the nerves in your skin, muscles and joints.
8. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED) – this is a rare condition that affects your inner ear.
It involves hearing and balance abnormalities and can also cause you to have hearing loss.
9. HIV/AIDS – people with weakened immune systems can be more susceptible to developing peripheral nerve pain.
Central Nerve Pain
Sources & references used in this article:
- Neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) syndrome (FM Santorelli, A Tessa – Orphanet Encyclopedia, 2004 – pdfs.semanticscholar.org)
- A novel mitochondrial mutation m. 8989G> C associated with neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa—the NARP syndrome (M Duno, F Wibrand, K Baggesen, T Rosenberg… – Gene, 2013 – Elsevier)
- Renal involvement in neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) syndrome: a case report (S Lemoine, M Panaye, M Rabeyrin… – American Journal of …, 2018 – Elsevier)
- High mitochondrial DNA T8993G mutation (> 90%) without typical features of Leigh’s and NARP syndromes (CY Tsao, JR Mendell… – Journal of child …, 2001 – journals.sagepub.com)
- A 2 bp deletion in the mitochondrial ATP 6 gene responsible for the NARP (neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa) syndrome (P Mordel, S Schaeffer, Q Dupas, MA Laville… – Biochemical and …, 2017 – Elsevier)
- A yeast model of the neurogenic ataxia retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) T8993G mutation in the mitochondrial ATP synthase-6 gene (M Rak, E Tetaud, S Duvezin-Caubet, N Ezkurdia… – Journal of Biological …, 2007 – ASBMB)