Pneumonia Classification PDF
The classification of pneumonia pdf is based on the following criteria:
1) Presence of cough (or phlegm), which may or may not be bloody;
2) Presence of fever (not just chills);
3) Presence of other signs and symptoms suggestive of infection;
4) Duration of illness with no improvement in condition;
5) Diagnosis by chest x-ray;
6) Possible treatment options.
What are the different types of pneumonia?
The types of pneumonia are given below:
1) Bacterial Pneumonia: Bacterial pneumonia is more common in older people.
The infectious agents involved are usually viruses in young people. There are several different types of bacterial pneumonia. The most common type is caused by infection with Haemophilus influenzae bacteria. Other types involve other bacteria, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. A newer, less common type is caused by infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae bacteria.
2) Viral Pneumonia: Viral pneumonia is more common in younger people.
The most common types involve the influenza virus or the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Another type is adenovirus pneumonia.
3) Fungal Pneumonia: Fungal pneumonia is rare.
It is usually a complication of a severe case of chronic lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis).
4) Parasitic Pneumonia: This is uncommon in the United States.
It is caused by the presence of a lung worm or another parasite in the lungs. It can be very serious, especially in people with weak immune systems, such as HIV patients and organ transplant recipients.
5) Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: This condition involves an overreaction by the immune system to an irritant, such as dust or mold.
6) Radiation Pneumonitis: This is a form of damage to lungs caused by radiation therapy.
7) Drug-Related Pneumonitis: This is a form of lung damage caused by certain drugs, such as amiodarone (Cordarone), bleomycin (Blenoxane), dactinomycin (Actinomycin-D), and tetracycline.
It can also be caused by a reaction to contrast dye used during some imaging tests.
8) Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonitis: This is a form of lung damage in which the cause is unknown.
It leads to inflammation and damage in the interstitium of the lung. It is a type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). This can be a severe condition. Some cases of IIP can be a relapse of an underlying disease, such as sarcoidosis.
9) Autoimmune Pneumonitis: This uncommon type of lung disease involves inflammation due to the body’s own immune system.
In most cases, the cause is unknown.
10) Radiation Pneumonopathy: This condition involves damage to lungs caused by radiation therapy. It is a type of fibrosis involving scarring in the lung tissue.
11) Occupational Pneumoconiosis: This condition involves inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue from dust in the workplace (such as coal miners or glass workers).
12) Asbestosis: This is a type of lung scarring caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
General information about treatment of pneumonia
Specific treatment for pneumonia will be determined by your doctor based on the following factors:
1) The type of pneumonia
2) Your age, overall health, and medical history
3) The extent of the condition
4) Your tolerance for specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
5) Expectations for the course of the condition
Your doctor will determine the best treatment based on the above factors. Treatment may include keeping you well hydrated and limiting visitors to decrease the risk of spreading the condition to others.
Additional therapy may include:
1) Antibiotics: These are medicines used to treat certain types of bacteria.
The type of antibiotics will be determined based on test results that determine what is causing the pneumonia.
2) Oxygen Therapy: This involves the use of oxygen in inhaled form to help your lungs.
It can help relieve shortness of breath and reduce fatigue.
3) PleurX Therapy: This therapy is reserved for those with severe cases of pneumonia.
It involves draining the fluid between the lungs and chest wall.
4) Mechanical Ventilation: This involves the use of a machine to help with breathing.
A tube is placed into the mouth or nose and ventilates the lung to reduce shortness of breath and fatigue. It is only used in severe cases because of the risk of developing other complications.
5) Surgery: This may be required in some cases of severe pneumonia that does not respond to other treatment methods.
Surgery is used to drain the fluid from around the lungs.
6) Medication: This may be required to reduce pain and inflammation in the lungs.
Sources & references used in this article:
- Clinical significance of histological classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (KR Flaherty, GB Toews, WD Travis… – European …, 2002 – Eur Respiratory Soc)
- Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and the other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: classification and diagnostic criteria (ALA Katzenstein, JL Myers – 2000 – journals.lww.com)
- Early-and late-onset pneumonia: is this still a useful classification? (P Gastmeier, D Sohr, C Geffers, H Rüden… – Antimicrobial agents …, 2009 – Am Soc Microbiol)
- The definition and classification of pneumonia (G Mackenzie – Pneumonia, 2016 – Springer)
- An efficient deep learning approach to pneumonia classification in healthcare (O Stephen, M Sain, UJ Maduh… – Journal of healthcare …, 2019 – hindawi.com)
- Pneumonia: classification, diagnosis and nursing management (L Dunn – Nursing standard, 2005 – go.gale.com)