Radiation Hazards Definition
The term “radiation” refers to any form of energy or matter which produces damage when it enters the body. These forms include X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, cosmic rays, ionizing radiation and other forms.
In general terms, radiation is harmful if it damages living cells. However, there are some exceptions such as medical isotopes used in medicine or certain industrial processes.
The meaning of the term “hazard” is easy to understand. In this sense, a hazard is any occurrence that can cause injury or damage to life and property.
“Risk” is a term that is used to describe the frequency or probability of a hazard causing damage.
An “accident” is an unplanned event or mishap that results in an injury or property damage.
The “emergency” is a sudden, unexpected event that requires prompt action.
The terms “accident” and “emergency” should not be confused with the term ‘hazard’, which refers to a possible cause of an accident or an emergency. Radiation is a hazard because it can cause damage, but not all hazards lead to accidents or emergencies.
The term “radiation accident” refers to an uncontrolled release of radioactive material in which the material is not contained and could come into contact or deposit on something or someone.
“Hazardous material” or “hazardous substance” is any element, compound or substance that poses a risk to living things or has the potential to cause damage to property. The term “hazardous material” is generally reserved for things that are defined by statute (law), such as explosives, radioactive materials or infectious biological agents.
The term “hazardous substance” is used more generally and can include many other types of dangerous materials.
“Hazardous material incident” or “hazardous substance incident” is an event during which hazardous material is either accidentally released or stolen.
The term “cleanup” refers to various actions that are taken to reduce or eliminate the degree of hazard that is caused by a specific accident or incident. The term “decontamination” is applied to efforts to physically or chemically remove hazardous material from a location or object.
“Danger zone” refers to an area within which individuals have been exposed to sufficient levels of radiation to warrant monitoring.
“Hot zone” refers to an area within which individuals have been exposed to sufficient levels of radiation to cause harmful health effects.
“Radiation safety officer” or “radiation protection supervisor” are terms used to identify an individual charged with ensuring that radiation hazards are identified and that safety measures are taken to protect people from these hazards.
“Radiation safety director” or “radiation safety supervisor” are titles used to identify an individual who has a broader responsibility for ensuring that all safety measures related to hazardous chemicals and other dangerous substances are taken.
“Time Weighted Average” or “TWA” is a term used to describe the amount of radiation exposure that a person receives in a given length of time.
“Local Radiation Exposure” is an exposure to radiation that occurs in a specific part of the body, such as a hand or foot.
The “radiation protection guidelines” are regulations that are designed to limit the amount of radiation exposure to which people may be exposed.
“Strontium-90” or “strontium-90 isotope” is a radioactive material that can cause bone cancer and leukemia.
The “National Environmental Policy Act” (or “NEPA”) is a law that requires federal agencies to assess the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions and to mitigate any harmful effects.
An “EPA superfund site” is a location where hazardous materials have been deposited or leaked, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has determined that these materials pose a significant risk to human health and/or the environment.
“Solid waste” or “hazardous waste” is a term used to describe material that has little or no value and must be disposed of properly.
An “RCRA Facility” is a location that stores, handles or treats “hazardous waste”.
The “Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980” (or “CERCLA” or “Superfund”) is a law that was designed to aid in the clean-up of sites contaminated with hazardous materials.
1. t; 2.
f; 3. t; 4. f; 5. f; 6. t; 7. f; 8. t; 9. t; 10. f
1. D; 2.
F; 3. T; 4. F; 5. T; 6. F; 7. F; 8. T; 9 F; 10. T
1. E; 2.
T; 3. F; 4. T; 5. F; 6. T; 7. F; 8. F; 9. T; 10. F
1. b; 2.
d; 3. e; 4. a; 5. c; 6. a; 7. b; 8. e; 9. d; 10. f
1. The National Environmental Policy Act; 2.
RCRA Facility; 3. Hazardous Waste; 4. Superfund; 5. Time-Weighted Average; 6. Clean-up; 7. National Environmental Policy Act; 8. Hazardous Waste; 9. Clean-up; 10. Superfund
1. t; 2.
f; 3. f; 4. t; 5. f; 6. f; 7. t; 8. f; 9. t; 10.t
1. c; 2.
b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. c; 7. b; 8. a; 9. c; 10. a
1. Hot zone; 2.
________; 3. ________; 4. ________; 5. ________; 6. ________; 7. ________; 8. ________; 9. ________; 10. ________
1. b; 2.
a; 3. b; 4. e; 5. f; 6. e; 7. c; 8. d; 9. d; 10. a
a. True; b.
True; c. True; d. False; e. False; f. True; g. True; h. True; i. True; j. True; k. True; l. True; m. True; n. True; o. True; p. True; q. True; r. True; s. True; t. True; u. True; v. True; w. True; x. True; y. True; z. True
a. d; b.
f; c. t; d. f; e. t; f. f; g. t; h. f; i. t; j. t; k. f; l. t; m. t; n. t; o. f; p. t; q. t; r. f; s. t; t. t; u. t; v. t; w. f; x. t; y. t; z. t
a. D; b.
F; c. T; d. F; e. T; f. F; g. T; h. F; i. T; j. T; k. F; l. T; m. T; n. T; o. F; p. T; q. T; r. F; s. T; t.
Sources & references used in this article:
- Evaluation of optical radiation hazards (DH Sliney, BC Freasier – Applied Optics, 1973 – osapublishing.org)
- Thermal radiation hazards from hydrocarbon pool fires (KS Mudan – Progress in energy and combustion science, 1984 – osti.gov)
- Radiation hazards to the embryo and fetus (LB Russell, WL Russell – Radiology, 1952 – pubs.rsna.org)
- Chronic radiation hazards: an experimental study with fast neutrons (GJ Neary, RJ Munson, RH Mole – 2015 – books.google.com)
- Unique biological aspects of radiation hazards—an overview (P Todd – Advances in Space Research, 1983 – Elsevier)