START CODON: The first letter of each word in the sentence represents a specific amino acid. For example, the first letter of “start” is L-Arginine. This codon indicates that the amino acids arginine and methionine are being produced in your body. If this codon is not present, then there will be no production of these two amino acids. A deficiency in either one of them may cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness or depression.
STOP CODON: The stop codon is denoted by an end stop codon, tautologically. It indicates the end of the mRNA sequence and the stop of production of the protein. It usually results in the death of the organism.
If a stop codon is not present in a mRNA, then the organism may still survive but will not be able to produce a protein from it. A stopcodon is always paired with a start codon.
Here you can read more about the START and STOP codons.
The article below provides some interesting information about the effects of STOP and START codons.
A recent study suggests that there are different types of cancer.
Adenocarcinoma: The gene associated with this type of cancer produces excessive amounts of effector or “doing” protein, but not much of a “talker” protein. The talking protein is called p53, and it causes the cell to stop growing and to begin dying (apoptosis) in a regulated fashion. Thus, the cell grows in size, like a ball of swiss cheese, and is turned into a ball of cancer.
Papillary, SQUAMOUS and Carcinoma: These types of cancer do not produce excessive amounts of the p53 “talker”, but rather the speaker. This means the cell grows and divides in a unregulated fashion. Most often, this type of cancer is caused by a genetic mutation in one of the required genetic pathways.
A “spoker” gene means that the cell producing it divides and grows without stop, like a spring.
Usually, these types of cancer are not fatal, but metastasize within the body in a rapid fashion unless quickly treated.
Kaposi’s Sarcoma: This is a type of blood cancer, caused by an oncogene (gene associated with cancer). There are a lot of genes associated with this condition. Most often, a combination of several will be mutated to form this type of cancer.
Infectious Mononucleosis: Mono is an inflammation of the blood vessels, usually revolving about an infection. Usually, the cause of an infection is bacteria or viruses (herp, for example). In addition, the immune system fights the infection.
The mononucleosis is a result of a virus, and the infection results in a lot of bleeding in the lungs (pulmonary hemmorhage). There is no known cure for mono, and recovery is rapid when compared to a normal infection, although it can be fatal if the patient has a pre-existing heart condition (such as myocarditis). Mono is also very contagious, and can be spread through saliva, nasal mucus, and fomites (for example, clothes that have come in contact with bodily fluids).
Normally, these articles are not admissible as evidence in a criminal trial. However, in the case of the “Ebola Hoax,” anything is admissible as evidence.It is legal process according to the SPLC, the Southern Poverty Law Center.
It’s mission is to monitor and combat hate groups and other such organizations in the united states.
We’re not sure about the accuracy of the information on the website. It looks like they have taken various articles from around the internet and pasted them into a Word document, with only a few minor changes.
- The role of RNA editing in conservation of start codons in chloroplast genomes (K Neckermann, P Zeltz, GL Igloi, H Kössel, RM Maier – Gene, 1994 – Elsevier)
- Eukaryotic start and stop translation sites (DR Cavener, SC Ray – Nucleic acids research, 1991 – academic.oup.com)
- Blastocystis Mitochondrial Genomes Appear to Show Multiple Independent Gains and Losses of Start and Stop Codons (AS Jacob, LOB Andersen, PP Bitar… – Genome biology and …, 2016 – academic.oup.com)
- Comprehensive analysis of mRNA methylation reveals enrichment in 3′ UTRs and near stop codons (KD Meyer, Y Saletore, P Zumbo, O Elemento… – Cell, 2012 – Elsevier)
- Effect of sequence context at stop codons on efficiency of reinitiation in GCN4 translational control. (CM Grant, AG Hinnebusch – Molecular and cellular biology, 1994 – Am Soc Microbiol)
- MACSE: Multiple Alignment of Coding SEquences accounting for frameshifts and stop codons (V Ranwez, S Harispe, F Delsuc, EJP Douzery – PloS one, 2011 – journals.plos.org)
- The ambush hypothesis: hidden stop codons prevent off-frame gene reading (H Seligmann, DD Pollock – DNA and cell biology, 2004 – liebertpub.com)