What Does a Quadrantectomy Involve?
A quadrantectomy is a surgical operation performed on the chest area. A quadrant is defined as four ribs or 4 vertebrae.
The word “quad” comes from quadriplegia which means having four limbs.
In the United States, there are two types of quadrants: left and right.
Left quadrants have a large heart (left ventricle) while right quadrants have a small heart (right ventricle).
There are many different kinds of cancer. The most common types are skin cancer and lung cancer.
The other most common types are blood cancer, digestive system cancer, female reproductive system cancer, and urinary system cancer.
Quadrantectomy is one of the most common types of procedures performed by doctors.
The most common types of cancer which affect the left ventricle are lung cancer and thymus cancer.
Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in men and women in the United States.
Lung cancer was first discovered in the seventeenth century.
The most common type of cancer which affects the right ventricle is a thymus tumor.
A thymus is an organ located in the upper part of the chest.
A thymus is part of the immune system.
Thymus tumors are most common in children.
Thymus tumors can be either cancerous or benign.
Some types of thymus tumors are malignant and begin in the epithelium tissue.
Thymus tumors can grow into other organs.
The thymus grows until puberty and then begins to shrink.
The thymus reaches its smallest size in middle age.
After middle age, the thymus begins to grow again.
Cancer of the thymus will usually spread (metastasize) to the bones and the liver.
In rare cases, the cancer may spread to other organs in the body.
At first, thymus tumors are usually non-cancerous (benign).
Benign tumors do not spread (metastasize).
If the thymus tumor is cancerous, it can grow into nearby organs.
A thymus tumor may press on (compress) nearby organs.
A thymus tumor may invade nearby blood vessels.
A thymus tumor may invade nearby lymph vessels.
How Is a Quadrantectomy Performed?
A quadrantectomy is an open-heart operation. There are three incisions on the chest.
One incision is made near the collarbone.
One incision is made below the left collarbone.
One incision is made below the right collarbone.
A heart-lung machine keeps the patient alive during the procedure.
A heart-lung machine is a mechanical pump.
A heart-lung machine oxygenates the blood.
The heart is stopped and the blood is drained from the body.
The heart is stopped by injecting it with potassium chloride.
The heart is cooled to reduce oxygen demand.
Once the heart is stopped, it is possible to operate on it.
A heart-lung machine can be used to keep a person alive for several hours.
A heart-lung machine is also used in open-heart surgery.
The surgeon makes an incision in the chest.
The surgeon must cut through the ribs to reach the heart.
The surgeon cuts through the pericardium to reach the heart.
The surgeon attaches the heart-lung machine to the patient.
The surgeon stops the heart and removes it from the pericardium.
The surgeon detaches the blood vessels from the heart.
The surgeon severs the pulmonary trunk and the aorta.
The surgeon removes part of the left and right ventricles.
The surgeon uses a vacuum to remove the rest of the blood.
The surgeon connects the heart-lung machine to the patient.
The surgeon removes the chest incisions.
The surgeon sews the cut blood vessels.
The surgeon implants an internal defibrillator.
The surgeon closes the incision(s).
The surgeon restores the blood supply to the heart.
The surgeon sews the incision(s).
The surgeon removes the heart-lung machine.
The surgeon closes the incision(s) in the chest.
The surgeon restores the heart’s normal rhythm.
The surgeon closes the incision and restores the heart’s normal rhythm.
The procedure takes about six hours.
It is normal for the heart to function at 40 percent efficiency when it is first restarted
Patients in this condition must remain in intensive care for several days.
Sources & references used in this article:
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